HIIT vs LISS: Guest Post By Douglass Hameldon

This is a guest post by Douglass Hameldon of FitnessPurity

Physical exercises is a major priority to any athlete. Also, it has proven to be more useful
even to the regular person. Basically, anyone that wants to stay fit and healthy will be recommended to engage in proper workouts. Speaking of workouts, they are grouped into different categories. Cardio exercises are one of the most popular forms of workouts. They are aimed at increasing the heart rate, which then has an effect on the fat loss.

For an effective workout experience, you should combine calisthenics and cardio. Calisthenics utilizes the body muscles and strength while cardio increases the heart rate. A combination of the two will mean that you’ll burn fat and gain/retain muscles as well.

Cardio exercises are normally categorized into two; High-Intensity Interval Training {HIIT} and Low-Intensity Steady State {LISS}. This article will go deep in these two types of cardio.

Low-Intensity Steady State (LISS)

LISS is a cardio exercise that is aimed at increasing the heart rate by around 50 to 65% of the maximum rate. It is performed for a long time, usually between 30 and 60 minutes, at a pace that allows you to breathe with ease. With LISS, it uses more of the stored body fat instead of the stored glucose {muscle glycogen}.

 

Examples Of LISS Workouts

 

Typically, Low-Intensity Steady State exercises are

 

easy to do. They include swimming, walking, cycling, or when you are jogging at a slow pace. As long as the workout you are doing doesn’t make your heart rate to increase beyond 65%, it is considered a LISS exercise.

The Advantages

 

  • They are easier for overweight and sedentary persons
  • They offer active recovery of the body and muscles
  • They use more fat to generate energy, instead of glycogen
  • They are easy on tendons, ligaments, and joints
  • They are also easy on the muscular and central nervous system
  • They are flexible and easily integrated into the regular workout schedule

 

The Drawbacks

  • Fewer calories are burnt after a workout {they are not too intense}
  • The workouts sessions tend to be long and tiresome {might even be boring at some point}
  • It affects the metabolic rate since the body will be adapted easily to the Low-Intensity Steady State.

High-Intensity Interval Training – HIIT

Contrary to LISS, HIIT is all about engaging in a blend of short, intense workouts that range between 10 to 60 seconds. They aim at increasing the heart rate by about 80% to 95 % of the maximum rate. One major difference between LISS and HIIT is that HIIT combines LISS in its workouts. During the rest periods, you can rest completely or opt for low intensive workouts between the intervals.

 

Examples of HIIT

The High-Intensity Interval Training workouts are not specific or limited to a certain form. It is all about starting light and finishing with a high intense exercise. Remember that it is aimed at boosting your heart rate to almost 95% of the maximum rate. Ideally, you can start by jogging for around three minutes, but not in an overly intense pace. After that, perform intense cycling or sprinting for 20 seconds, followed by a 40-second recovery light jogging. When the heart rate has slowed down, jump right into a three-minute low-intensity workout.

Other forms of HIIT include mountain climbing, jumping jacks, or burpees. Remember not to take brakes in the process.

 

The Advantages

  • It has a better impact on the metabolic system {it increases the metabolic rate}
  • More calories are burnt after a workout
  • The exercises are enjoyable since they are quick and take less than a minute.
  • It promotes anaerobic and aerobic workout capacity
  • Calories are burnt during and after workouts
  • It promotes the preservation of lean muscles

The Drawbacks

  • They have a higher injury risk
  • The muscular system and CNS are overwhelmed
  • The exercises require both physical and psychological efforts
  • They are not suitable for overweight or persons with health issues.
  • These exercises might need some experience and skills

 

The Verdict

Both cardio workouts are ideal for burning the excess fat in the body. Nonetheless, LISS delivers a better fat-burning moment in the end. The good thing about HIIT is that it burns fat during and after the exercises. HIIT also gets the upper hand when it comes to the athletic performance. It helps to promote muscle gain and even retention. The major negative issue about the HIIT workout is that you are more prone to injury than LISS workouts. Bottom line, each cardio workout is effective and suitable at some point. It’s all about considering the time availability, skills, and your workout goals.

 

Source:

 

https://massivejoes.com/articles/the-scoop/hiit-cardio-or-liss-maximising-fat-loss-and-preserving-muscle

http://www.bodyandsoul.com.au/fitness/workouts/whats-better-hiit-or-liss-training/news-story/cebf7de3d8f038ca3793900b0d80e8aa

https://www.paleofx.com/truth-about-fat-loss/

This was a guest post by Douglass Hameldon. CEO/Editor in Chief of FitnessPurity®.

 

Hi, I’m Doug. My job is to help people reach their fitness goals with easy-to-follow guides, and to overcome any obstacles along the way. Visit my site for more information.

 

How to Find Time for Running as a Single Mother – Guest Post by Theresa Brawner

This is a guest post from our friend Theresa Brawner of www.diet.st fame:

When you’re a single parent, you’re constantly being both a mother and a father, and that is one of the greatest challenges anyone can face. This is why finding any time for yourself is very close to mission impossible when you’ve got your kids, your house and your job to worry about, not to mention all the responsibilities that come along the way. For single moms it’s very difficult to find time to breathe normally without worrying about this or that, which is why so many of them neglect their need for physical activity that doesn’t include scrambling around at the supermarket. Today we’ll look into what you can do to fit running into your busy schedule and hopefully we’ll give you some boost to get to it.

Don’t Do Everything Alone

Of course you’re a strong independent woman, but when you just don’t have enough time to manage everything, asking for help is completely ok. We all strive to be crazy productive super parents, but it doesn’t always work out and you still need to find time for yourself, so that you can be a better parent for your little ones. Chances are that you know other parents that live in the neighborhood, so why not establish a plan where you take care after each other’s children from time to time, so that you all have some time to just be? For you, this means spending a couple of hours alone with your thoughts, going for a long run and enjoying it without worrying, and your kids get to play with their friends, it’s a win-win situation. There is nothing wrong with asking for assistance when you need some, and you’ll probably be surprised at how willing other parents are to help you out, as you will be there for them when they need it too.

Wake up Earlier

This is an option that isn’t really a favorite among moms that are usually under slept and under constant pressure to get things done from the moment they open their eyes, but it works. Starting your day an hour earlier gives you some leeway to do things just for you and that can be anything, running included. You don’t have worry about your kids tearing down the house while you’re doing your laps, as they’re still sleeping and you’ll still get back in time to get a quick shower and prepare a healthy breakfast for both you and your little ones. You will actually be pleasantly surprised at how much you can accomplish just by waking a bit earlier, as there are no distractions on the way, and you can organize your time as you please.

Find a Running Partner

This is a great tip because you get someone to motivate you to find time for running even when you don’t feel like it. If at all possible, you can join a running group or create one if you know that more parents from the neighborhood would be interested to join. Having someone run with you will cut the excuses for not doing it at the root, plus you will have a great time bonding with new friends, with whom you share many things in common. Besides, being close to your neighbors is always a good idea, you will always have someone to turn to if push comes to a shove and you need help with babysitting or any other life situation.

Treadmill as Plan B

There will be days when you just can’t find the time to get out of house and go for a run and in this case, it’s wise to have a treadmill at hand. It doesn’t have to anything fancy, just a solid piece of equipment that will allow you to stay in shape even when you can’t do your running outside. Treadmill is a practical solution for when you have to stay in the house and keep an eye on everything that’s going on and it gives you space to do something for yourself even when the odds are against you. – Theresa Brawner

 

Theresa Brawner is a 28-year-old fitness instructor from Boston, MA, who writes articles for www.diet.st in her free time. When she isn’t helping new moms get back in shape, you can find her in the kitchen, working on new recipes.

 

Starting from Zero: How to Get Motivated to Workout (Guest Post By Charlie Alf)

The following is a guest post written by Charlie Alf from backpackhack.com

How long ago was it when you stood in front of the mirror in your bathroom or bedroom and said, “Today is the day I am going to start getting fit!” Seems like forever, I bet. Every person who has started their journey towards a healthier, fitter body has been in your shoes. Not knowing anything about nutrition, working out, or even calories, you hop on the crash diet train and derail over and over.

Fortunately, by the end of this article, you are going to know exactly how to first find the right motivation and how to get in shape. For real this time.

Get Your Act Together

You know what that means. If you are going to make the chance, you need to be in this completely, heart and soul. No doubts. No regrets. In order to do that, more thought has to go into your motivation than just wanting to look good. You need a thorough reason, a goal, that is going to drive you further and further until you not only crush that goal, you succeed repeatedly from here on out.

It might sound inconceivable right now, but once you consider these reasons to get fit, nothing will feel more dire:

  • Exercise decreases hypertension which is positively correlated to high-fat, high-sugar diets and sedentary lifestyles.
  • You lower your risk of diabetes and obesity, both of which shave valuable years off your life. Plus, you increase lean body mass while reducing body fat. When these two factors are more balanced, you are much healthier, and your system is more balanced.
  • Exercise keeps the bones strong. Sedentary lifestyles can induce brittle bones, so keep moving to save your body from literally breaking down.
  • Feeling tired? Exercise more. Laying around doing nothing and eating nutritionally devoid foods is actually more draining than bouts of exercise.
  • In fact, you will not only have more energy from working out, you will be in a better mood. And I am not only talking happiness over depression but being in the mood more often. Yes, exercise means better sex.
  • Moderate walking has been proven to boost the brain’s memory center, lowers the stress-induced hormone, cortisol, and makes you happier.

The list could go on and on, but for brevity, it is going to be cut off here. Yet, by these tidbits alone, you can see that your health is linked to how active you are. Humans are born movers.

But if being able to extend your life and the quality of it is not enough to get you off the couch, perhaps there is another way to get you motivated.

Figure Out Your “Why”

Though you may be tempted to jump in headfirst, think about this first. How badly do you want this?

Formulate a real life goal. For example:

  • “I want to be able to play with the kids or grandkids one day,”
  • “I want to be independent when I’m older,”
  • “I want to be able to climb Mt. Everest,”
  • “I want to complete a charity marathon and honor someone dear to me,”
  • “I want to recover or holistically treat a mental or physical disorder or disease.”

Write it down. Use it as a mantra. Hang it up on the refrigerator, bedroom wall, and anywhere else you will be reminded of your goal.

Choose Activities That Are Fun

Something that gets you involved both physically and mentally is going to feel a lot more rewarding than schlepping through an internet search generated workout.

Choose what makes you smile. Hiking, dancing, biking, swimming, tai chi, and kickboxing are all valid forms of exercise. As long as you are having fun, you will stick with it. Also, do not fret about “going hard or going home.” If you cannot do much yet, simply walking around for 30 minutes a day is the perfect way to getting started.

Remember:

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), alongside internationally known fitness associations like NASM, ACSM, and ACE, have all declared that adults should get at least 150 minutes (2.5 hours) of moderate-intensity exercise per week. This does not have to be done all in one shot, so never say you do not have time. 10 minute bursts of activity throughout the day actually burn more calories than an extended, steady state workout while boosting productivity and creativity.

Once you have started, keep the momentum going by investing time in physical activities that you enjoy. Motivate yourself by knowing the importance of your health and how working out will reshape you and your life for the better. Stay strong. You got this.

Charlie Alf is a avid hiker and loves nature and is always on the lookout for the next adventure, when his not hiking he likes to woodwork and fix things.If you liked this article, be sure to check out his other great articles on backpackhack.com

 

Stepping In To Barefoot Running

The Works Sport KiltIf you’ve found your way here, then you’ve probably heard a little bit about running barefoot and are intrigued enough to want to know more. Like most people, you probably have all sorts of questions running through your head:

  • Won’t I step on glass?
  • Will me feet get ugly?
  • Do I have to grow a beard?
  • What will my girlfriend/boyfriend think?
  • Is it OK to wear shoes when I’m running barefoot?
  • Can I ever wear shoes again?

Every barefooter before you has had similar questions and have found a variety of answers (especially to that beard one). In this post we’re going to talk about some of the risks and rewards of running barefoot, what you need to do to get ready to take your first steps, and a few other tips and tricks to get you started off right.

So, to begin, let’s start by dispelling a myth.

Now, you may have heard that running barefoot will cure your plantar fasciitis, put an end to injuries forever,  grow hair on your chest, bring about world peace, etc. I’m afraid that as much as I would like all this to be true, if you’re looking for a magic cure-all, then you may be disappointed. Like any physical, outdoor activity, there is a chance you will aggravate an existing injury or even obtain a new one. Transitioning to barefoot (or minimal shoes) is notoriously risky and if done incorrectly can cause serious damage (see pretty much every article on this site for tips on how to minimise this).

However, though running barefoot isn’t a 100% cure for running injuries, it does offer a number of very worthwhile benefits.

To begin with, it’s FUN! Really, really fun! I honestly think this is the top reason why so many runners find their way into running barefoot. It’s hard to overstate the enjoyment of throwing off your shoes and running down a beach, or sloshing your way along a muddy trail.

What barefoot running offers is a change from the increasingly common mentality of needing to experience pain and discomfort for the sake of exercise. One thing that barefooters seem to have in common is the uncanny ability to smile throughout their runs. It sounds cheesy as hell, but it really does give you a spring in your step, and can bring back the enjoyment of running to those who have lost it.

Apart from sheer pleasure, there are many physical benefits to running unshod as well. Once you learn how to do it correctly and safely, it is a great way to stretch and strengthen your feet. Our poor feet spend a lot of time in shoes that, frankly, aren’t fit for feet. The damage caused by office shoes in particular, especially high-heels (or so I hear) is appalling.

By running au naturelle every now and then, it’s possibly to strengthen the arches of your feet and even reverse some of the damage caused by shoes. Your feet will start to change, and many barefooters, myself included, have experienced widening feet as their toes spread apart. Once you get to this point, the idea of cramming your piggies back into a pair of hush puppies is abhorrent.

What I’ve found really surprising about learning to run barefoot however, has little to do with feet at all. As you scan the ground in front of you for broken glass, thorns, dog poo, etc, something strange happens to your brain. You start to notice more, be aware of your surrounding more, and even begin to feel more ‘present’. It’s something akin to mindfulness meditation, and can have a major affect on you, even when you’re not running. Barefoot running is meditating without needing to meditate, and even more than shod running, can snap you out of a funk like you would not believe.

Now there is one concern that new barefooters have that can’t be dismissed. It’s the totally justified fear of stepping on something sharp. The fact is that when you leave the protection of a pair of shoes behind, you open your soles to the possibility of damage. At first this seems like a really dumb idea, but in practice, it’s not as bad as it sounds.

Think of it like parenting – you can wrap your kids up in cotton wool to protect them from ever getting hurt, or you can let them roam free and collect the bruises and scrapes that will be inevitable. By protecting the child, they never learn how to deal with bumps and bruises, so when they eventually grow up and get their first scrape, the world seems to be coming to an end. For the free-roaming kid, they’re likely to get bumped around a little bit initially, but they learn from the experience and develop the skills and resilience to manage or avoid similar situations in the future.

The same goes with feet. Sure, you might get the odd scratch or bruise, but this will make you more aware of your surroundings and more careful about how you run. It forces you to treat your body and environment with respect which, in the long term, pays off huge dividends. And don’t forget, your feet evolved to do this, so they’re actually very well equipped to deal with outdoor terrain.

Initially, when the shoes first come off, your feet will likely be soft and weak. You’re going to feel every little stone and stick, and it’s probably going to be a little bit uncomfortable and even painful. But by slowly exposing your feet to more and more time in direct contact with the ground, your brain will learn how to filter out the unimportant signals and focus in on what’s important.

Many people think that by running barefoot all the time, you just end up with big, nasty callouses, and that this toughening of the skin is what makes it easier for long term barefooters to cope with the sensations. In fact, after seven years of barefoot running, I have got very little callousing on my feet, and in fact I think it’s actually less than when I always wore shoes. Despite this, I can run on gravel now that would have stopped me in my tracks in the early days.

Barefoot running is not for everyone, and that’s fine, but it can be a very rewarding way to spice up your running, improve your foot health, and allow you to feel more attuned to your surroundings. You don’t have to do it for every run, and you don’t have to run marathons unshod either. All you need to do is take off your shoes, slow down, and enjoy the experience.

Written by Barefoot Dawsy

Barefoot running is not for everyone and has associated risks that may not be suitable to your individual situation. Please see out disclaimer regarding information shared on this site.

4 Simple Tips To Increase Running Cadence (Guest Post by Cara Haley!)

The following is a guest post by our friend Cara Haley from Fitaholic Gear

Running, as all runners know,  is quite a repetitive sport, and also one associated with a wide variety of possible injuries. The running cadence is the number of strikes made by your feet for a set period of time.

By increasing your running cadence, you increase your speed and improve your performance. Also, by improving your running cadence you decrease the risks of shin splints and other running related injuries, and improve your ability for long term, healthy running.

To determine your running cadence, count the number of times one of your feet steps on the ground for one minute when running. Multiply it by two and you will get your cadence. You should do that to determine both your training cadence and your racing cadence. Of course, your cadence is affected by the terrain you are running on, the conditions, as well the length of your running stride.

The majority of the runners consider 180 steps per minute to be the cadence to strive for.

There are ways to increase the running cadence. Here are 4 simple tips to help you do that:

  1. You need to determine your running cadence in order to attempt to increase it.
    So, measure it, and re-measure it periodically to calculate your cadence. Consider wearing fitness gear, such as a watch with enabled GPS which has a metronome and accelerometer to keep track of your cadence and your progress.

    When you first start to increase your cadence, your running will feel different than usual. Do not overdo it, and try to increase the strikes of your feet slowly. This will make the progress feel more natural and will not hinder your performance or increase the risk of injuries.
    Try increasing your cadence by 5% at a time. Once you are used to the increased cadence you can opt for another increase of 5%. Take it slowly but surely.

  2. Try listening to music with a faster rhythm while you are running.
    You will find that your feet will tend to follow the rhythm, and this can help increase the cadence naturally as well. All you need is a small mp3 player such as one of these here. There are various websites which provide playlists and music which is suitable for increasing the number of steps you make per minute.
  3. You can also use a metronome to provide you with the pace rate you are striving for.
    Just follow the beats or clicks to increase your steps per minute.
  4. Visualize your running cadence in a mental rehearsal of your run.
    By visualizing the result you want to reach you train your brain and it will in turn train the body to automatically adjust to the new cadence. You can also try running in place in front of a mirror with your feet at a shoulder-width.

    Position your arms as if you are running, and start running in place. Bring the knees half way up and run as fast as you can on one spot. The knees need to be pointing straight ahead, and your heels shouldn’t touch the ground as you are doing that. Run for 20 seconds and rest for a minute after that.

    Keep track of the number of foot strikes you make for each run. Repeat the running twice. Do this exercise two times a week, and keep track of your progress. This exercise helps train the feet to leave the ground as soon as possible when running, which leads to an increase of cadence.

Remember the 5% rule, and stay safe at all times when working on increasing your cadence. This is the best way to do it, and will keep you safe from injuries from overtraining.

Written by C.Haley: Cara is addicted to running, fitness, preparing healthy food, and spending time with her family. She blogs for Fitaholic Gear, Comfort Hacks and a number of other sites, as she wants share her passion for fitness with those who are looking to make lasting lifestyle changes.

XeroShoes Do It Again With The New Prio

They’re here, They’re finally here! 

Ever since I saw my first glimpse of the new XeroShoes Prio, I knew I had to have them. Their sleek design and barefoot pedigree made them shoes to be sought after, and now, here I sit, with the box open on my lap, and I have to say – I’m not disappointed.

I expected the Prio to be light, and they are. I expected them to be flexible, and they are. I expected them to be breathable, comfortable, and affordable. Tick, tick, tick.

What I didn’t expect was that these shoes would be so much better than the competition.

Here’s a company that has been around since the beginning of the minimalist/barefoot running movement. They started with a very basic, DIY sandal, with a sole that was designed to be lighter than a car tyre. Basically it was a slight modernisation of the Huarache sandals famously described in the barefoot running classic Born to Run.

Fast forward a little less than a decade, and this tiny operation has grown up and is now producing shoes that other companies would charge upwards of $400 for (I’m looking at you Vivobarefoot).

 

Designed by barefoot runners, for barefoot runners, the Prio is an engineering marvel. It still follows the basic design of a huarache sandal, with the strapping cradling the shoe in a familiar crisscross pattern. But within that layer of strapping is now a lightweight mesh upper, which provides comfort and protection while still allowing maximum airflow across the foot. Most minimalist shoes these days have mesh uppers, but somehow, the Prio manages to get it just right, to the point where it’s easy to forget that the mesh is even there.

The protective covering doesn’t just stop at the upper however. Underfoot, there is a soft, yet thin fabric layer, covering the wafer-thin FeelTrue rubber sole. Unlike its sister shoe, the Hana, this soft inner sole features hidden stitching, which makes them more aesthetically appealing, and much more comfortable, even without the optional insole which is included in the box.

To top it all off, the Prio features one of the nicest toe boxes on the market. It is spacious enough for a full range of motion, even for wider feet, but doesn’t have the “clown shoe” effect that many wide-box shoes have.

With all of the new features in the Prio, it’s also comforting to see many of the building blocks that make XeroShoes sandals and shoes so great. The simple, yet effective grip underfoot, and the sensible lacing system make for a shoe that can be taken anywhere – off-road or on the streets.

Performance-wise, I can’t fault these shoes. I admit, I haven’t done much running in them yet (damn you, Cyclone Debbie), but the few K’s I’ve clocked up have been very pleasant, both at running and walking pace. I was very surprised at how much of a marked difference they made in running as compared to the Hana, which until now has been my go-to walking shoe.

When running in the Prio, you can literally feel the breeze blowing across your feet, and the ground underfoot, but with the security of knowing you’re not going to come to harm by the occasional rogue thorn or sharp rock.

As you can probably tell, the Prio has done more than impress, and is hands down the best minimalist shoe I have worn to date. I’m hoping they wear out soon so that I can buy another pair!

Written by Barefoot Dawsy

Beginning Barefoot would like to thank XeroShoes for providing us with sample shoes for testing. to purchase your own pair, and show your support, please visit their site at xeroshoes.com

 

Best Strategies For Building Foot Muscles and Strength (Guest Post By Jane Grates!)

Learning to run and have a good stride is a practiced discipline especially when you are changing running styles. For runners who have worn the typical jogging shoe all their lives, building foot strength and endurance is important. There are few practical strategies for strengthening your feet while alleviating any potential for pain or injury in the future.

The most crucial thing to remember when beginning to train for minimal or barefoot running is not to dive into training too fast. Think of building your foot muscles and strength as a long-term project. You want to do a little at a time and slowly build up your foot’s endurance by pushing the limits on daily basis.

The first step before you dive into training is to test the strength in your feet. One way to do this is to find rollers of different sizes and densities. Start with the larger and softer density roller and apply partial body weight by being seated. Measure the amount of pressure you can handle before applying more. Increase the amount of density and use a smaller roller until you feel that you can handle a fair amount of pressure.

The next thing to consider is your stride. Most barefoot or minimalistic runners‘ strike with either their mid-foot or the forefoot. When you run barefoot, you automatically strengthen the muscles in the arch of your foot, which is a great way to prevent a collapse later on.

Shamma5One step towards preparing your feet for barefoot running is to invest in a good pair of minimal shoes. Test out your foot strength and endurance by learning to forefoot strike with minimalistic shoes on a hard but smooth surface such as a track or tennis court. You will know immediately from the response of your body if you are ready to move on after a few days. Make sure to pay attention to your form and try to create good form from the beginning. It’s also good to build up the calluses on your feet prior to going completely barefoot. There are many minimal shoes on the market that allow you to practice your forefoot strike.

When looking for a shoe, stay away from a built up heel. A larger heel will cause you to over-point your toes, which causes unnecessary pain and possible damage to the foot.

Find a shoe with a flexible sole and no arch support. When the sole is too stiff, it tends to prevent the flattening of the arch, which in turn keeps the muscles in the foot from functioning naturally. An easy rule of thumb is that if you can’t easily bend the sole of the shoe, it’s too stiff. In the first few days of training you may feel your muscles in your feet tire quickly, but this will eventually get better over time.

Overall the benefits from barefoot running outweigh any negatives. For example, you don’t have to worry about buying the latest jogging shoes. Plus, runners find that it takes less energy to forefoot strike, because they utilise the natural spring of the foot when stepping down. Running barefoot also allows you to carry less mass, which is great when you need to accelerate or get more push from each stride. If that’s not enough, how about the pure and simple fact that barefoot running feels great! Your feet have ton of nerves that are activated upon each step, so it’s an amazing rush. Lastly, with barefoot running there is very little impact delivered to the foot upon landing, so it’s really comfortable provided you take the time to strengthen and prepare your feet.

Author’s Bio:

janegrates1Jane Grates

Jane is an entrepreneur based in Copenhagen, Denmark. She owns several websites including Monica’s Health Magazine. When not busy with her websites, she travels to popular running destinations.